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Swissland

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Swissland

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Swissland

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Yearbook of Socioeconomics in Agriculture , Möhring A. November Mehr. Das Modellsystem wird seit zur Analyse agrarpolitischer Fragestellungen eingesetzt. Swiss granum, a. Swissland Der Milchmengenverlust, der bei einer Reduktion von Kraftfutter in der Milchviehhaltung zu erwarten ist, ergibt sich auf der Grundlage Android Spiele Downloaden praxisnahen Fütterungsempfehlungen für Schweizer Milchviehhalter Agroscope Möhring A. Zahlen zu den Biodiversitätsbeiträgen: Update 15 Lojra Online Erwartungsgemäss zeigen sich Unterschiede über die Gutschein Nicht Auszahlbar Betriebsgrössenklassen hinweg. Die Futtergetreidepreise bleiben wegen des Schwellenpreissystems auf konstantem Niveau Abb. Preise ansehen. Zugang: [ ] Agridea, b. Neben Milch- und Fleischproduktion. Jetzt buchen und erst bei der Ankunft bezahlen. Die Rind- und Kalbfleischproduktion nimmt geringfügig ab, hingegen stagniert die Schweinefleischproduktion, was bei konstanter Importmenge und gleichzeitig steigender Inlandnachfrage modellseitig zu Space Intruders positiven Preistrend führt Betway Mobile App.

The third mobilisation of the army took place in September in response to the German attack on Poland ; Henri Guisan was elected as the General-in-Chief.

Because of its neutrality policy, the Swiss army does not currently take part in armed conflicts in other countries, but is part of some peacekeeping missions around the world.

Since the armed force department has also maintained the Onyx intelligence gathering system to monitor satellite communications. Following the end of the Cold War there have been a number of attempts to curb military activity or even abolish the armed forces altogether.

A notable referendum on the subject, launched by an anti-militarist group , was held on 26 November It was defeated with about two thirds of the voters against the proposal.

The large majority of firearms kept at home are issued by the Swiss army , but ammunition is no longer issued.

Until the rather loosely coupled Confederation did not know a central political organisation, but representatives, mayors, and Landammänner met several times a year at the capital of the Lieu presiding the Confederal Diet for one year.

Until the legates met most of the time in Lucerne , but also in Zürich, Baden , Bern, Schwyz etc. From the Swabian War in onwards until Reformation, most conferences met in Zurich.

Afterwards the town hall at Baden, where the annual accounts of the common people had been held regularly since , became the most frequent, but not the sole place of assembly.

After Frauenfeld gradually dissolved Baden. From , the Catholic conferences were held mostly in Lucerne, the Protestant conferences from mostly in Aarau , the one for the legitimation of the French Ambassador in Solothurn.

At the same time the syndicate for the Ennetbirgischen Vogteien located in the present Ticino met from in Lugano and Locarno. In , the federal constitution provided that details concerning the federal institutions, such as their locations, should be taken care of by the Federal Assembly BV Art.

Thus on 28 November , the Federal Assembly voted in majority to locate the seat of government in Berne. In , a law RS fixed the compensations owed by the city of Bern for the federal seat.

The new constitution, however, does not contain anything concerning any Federal City. In a tripartite committee has been asked by the Swiss Federal Council to prepare the "creation of a federal law on the status of Bern as a Federal City", and to evaluate the positive and negative aspects for the city and the canton of Bern if this status were awarded.

After a first report the work of this committee was suspended in by the Swiss Federal Council, and work on this subject has not resumed since.

Origin of the capital at the 30 biggest Swiss corporations, []. Switzerland has a stable, prosperous and high-tech economy and enjoys great wealth, being ranked as the wealthiest country in the world per capita in multiple rankings, while at the same time being one the least corrupt countries in the world.

It is the seventeenth largest exporter. Zürich and Geneva are regarded as global cities , ranked as Alpha and Beta respectively.

Basel is the capital of the pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland. With its world-class companies, Novartis and Roche, and many other players, it is also one of the world's most important centres for the life sciences industry.

Switzerland has the highest European rating in the Index of Economic Freedom , while also providing large coverage through public services.

The World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report currently ranks Switzerland's economy as the most competitive in the world, [] while ranked by the European Union as Europe's most innovative country.

The slow growth Switzerland experienced in the s and the early s has brought greater support for economic reforms and harmonisation with the European Union.

For much of the 20th century, Switzerland was the wealthiest country in Europe by a considerable margin by GDP — per capita.

Switzerland is home to several large multinational corporations. Switzerland is ranked as having one of the most powerful economies in the world.

Switzerland's most important economic sector is manufacturing. Manufacturing consists largely of the production of specialist chemicals , health and pharmaceutical goods, scientific and precision measuring instruments and musical instruments.

Agricultural protectionism—a rare exception to Switzerland's free trade policies—has contributed to high food prices. Switzerland has an overwhelmingly private sector economy and low tax rates by Western World standards; overall taxation is one of the smallest of developed countries.

The Swiss Federal budget had a size of The unemployment rate increased from a low of 1. GDP per hour worked is the world's 16th highest, at About 8.

Single-parent families, those with no post-compulsory education and those who are out of work are among the most likely to be living below the poverty line.

Although getting a job is considered a way out of poverty, among the gainfully employed, some 4. Education in Switzerland is very diverse because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system to the cantons.

The minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons, but most cantons provide a free "children's school" starting at four or five years old.

Traditionally, the first foreign language in school was always one of the other national languages, although in English was introduced first in a few cantons.

At the end of primary school or at the beginning of secondary school , pupils are separated according to their capacities in several often three sections.

The fastest learners are taught advanced classes to be prepared for further studies and the matura , [] while students who assimilate a little more slowly receive an education more adapted to their needs.

There are 12 universities in Switzerland , ten of which are maintained at cantonal level and usually offer a range of non-technical subjects.

The first university in Switzerland was founded in in Basel with a faculty of medicine and has a tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland.

It is listed 87th on the Academic Ranking of World Universities. In addition, there are various Universities of Applied Sciences.

In business and management studies, the University of St. As might befit a country that plays home to innumerable international organisations, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies , located in Geneva , is not only continental Europe's oldest graduate school of international and development studies, but also widely believed to be one of its most prestigious.

Many Nobel Prize laureates have been Swiss scientists. They include the world-famous physicist Albert Einstein [] in the field of physics, who developed his special relativity while working in Bern.

In total, Nobel Prize winners in all fields stand in relation to Switzerland [] [note 11] and the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded nine times to organisations residing in Switzerland.

Geneva and the nearby French department of Ain co-host the world's largest laboratory , CERN , [] dedicated to particle physics research.

Another important research centre is the Paul Scherrer Institute. Notable inventions include lysergic acid diethylamide LSD , diazepam Valium , the scanning tunnelling microscope Nobel prize and Velcro.

Some technologies enabled the exploration of new worlds such as the pressurised balloon of Auguste Piccard and the Bathyscaphe which permitted Jacques Piccard to reach the deepest point of the world's oceans.

Switzerland Space Agency, the Swiss Space Office , has been involved in various space technologies and programmes. In addition it was one of the 10 founders of the European Space Agency in and is the seventh largest contributor to the ESA budget.

In the private sector, several companies are implicated in the space industry such as Oerlikon Space [] or Maxon Motors [] who provide spacecraft structures.

Switzerland voted against membership in the European Economic Area in a referendum in December and has since maintained and developed its relationships with the European Union EU and European countries through bilateral agreements.

In March , the Swiss people refused in a popular vote to start accession negotiations with the EU. The application for membership of the EU was formally withdrawn in , having long been frozen.

The western French-speaking areas and the urban regions of the rest of the country tend to be more pro-EU, nonetheless with far from a significant share of the population.

To minimise the negative consequences of Switzerland's isolation from the rest of Europe, Bern and Brussels signed seven bilateral agreements to further liberalise trade ties.

These agreements were signed in and took effect in This first series of bilateral agreements included the free movement of persons.

A second series covering nine areas was signed in and has since been ratified, which includes the Schengen Treaty and the Dublin Convention besides others.

In , Switzerland approved 1 billion francs of supportive investment in the poorer Southern and Central European countries in support of cooperation and positive ties to the EU as a whole.

A further referendum will be needed to approve million francs to support Romania and Bulgaria and their recent admission. The Swiss have also been under EU and sometimes international pressure to reduce banking secrecy and to raise tax rates to parity with the EU.

Preparatory discussions are being opened in four new areas: opening up the electricity market, participation in the European GNSS project Galileo , cooperating with the European centre for disease prevention and recognising certificates of origin for food products.

On 27 November , the interior and justice ministers of European Union in Brussels announced Switzerland's accession to the Schengen passport-free zone from 12 December The land border checkpoints will remain in place only for goods movements, but should not run controls on people, though people entering the country had their passports checked until 29 March if they originated from a Schengen nation.

On 9 February , Swiss voters narrowly approved by This initiative was mostly backed by rural In December , a political compromise with the European Union was attained effectively canceling quotas on EU citizens but still allowing for favourable treatment of Swiss-based job applicants.

On 18 May , two anti-nuclear initiatives were turned down: Moratorium Plus , aimed at forbidding the building of new nuclear power plants The agency is supporting the watt society initiative to cut the nation's energy use by more than half by the year On 31 May the world's longest and deepest railway tunnel and the first flat, low-level route through the Alps, the It started its daily business for passenger transport on 11 December replacing the old, mountainous, scenic route over and through the St Gotthard Massif.

Switzerland has a publicly managed road network without road tolls that is financed by highway permits as well as vehicle and gasoline taxes.

Gallen-Altenrhein Airport and Sion Airport. Swiss International Air Lines is the flag carrier of Switzerland. Its main hub is Zürich, but it is legally domiciled in Basel.

Switzerland has one of the best environmental records among nations in the developed world; [] it was one of the countries to sign the Kyoto Protocol in and ratified it in Switzerland developed an efficient system to recycle most recyclable materials.

Switzerland also has an economic system for garbage disposal, which is based mostly on recycling and energy-producing incinerators due to a strong political will to protect the environment.

In almost all Swiss municipalities, stickers or dedicated garbage bags need to be purchased that allow for identification of disposable garbage.

In , Switzerland's population slightly exceeded 8. In common with other developed countries, the Swiss population increased rapidly during the industrial era, quadrupling between and and has continued to grow.

Like most of Europe, Switzerland faces an ageing population , albeit with consistent annual growth projected into , due mostly to immigration and a fertility rate close to replacement level.

As of [update] , resident foreigners make up Immigrants from Sri Lanka , most of them former Tamil refugees, were the largest group among people of Asian origin 6.

Additionally, the figures from show that A third of this population , held Swiss citizenship. Four fifths of persons with an immigration background were themselves immigrants first generation foreigners and native-born and naturalised Swiss citizens , whereas one fifth were born in Switzerland second generation foreigners and native-born and naturalised Swiss citizens.

In the s, domestic and international institutions expressed concern about what was perceived as an increase in xenophobia , particularly in some political campaigns.

In reply to one critical report, the Federal Council noted that "racism unfortunately is present in Switzerland", but stated that the high proportion of foreign citizens in the country, as well as the generally unproblematic integration of foreigners, underlined Switzerland's openness.

Switzerland has four national languages : mainly German spoken by However, federal laws and other official acts do not need to be decreed in Romansh.

In , the languages most spoken at home among permanent residents aged 15 and older were Swiss German Other languages spoken at home included English 5.

The federal government is obliged to communicate in the official languages, and in the federal parliament simultaneous translation is provided from and into German, French and Italian.

Aside from the official forms of their respective languages, the four linguistic regions of Switzerland also have their local dialectal forms.

The role played by dialects in each linguistic region varies dramatically: in the German-speaking regions, Swiss German dialects have become ever more prevalent since the second half of the 20th century, especially in the media, such as radio and television, and are used as an everyday language for many, while the Swiss variety of Standard German is almost always used instead of dialect for written communication c.

The principal official languages German, French, and Italian have terms, not used outside of Switzerland, known as Helvetisms.

German Helvetisms are, roughly speaking, a large group of words typical of Swiss Standard German , which do not appear either in Standard German , nor in other German dialects.

These include terms from Switzerland's surrounding language cultures German Billett [] from French , from similar terms in another language Italian azione used not only as act but also as discount from German Aktion.

The most frequent characteristics of Helvetisms are in vocabulary, phrases, and pronunciation, but certain Helvetisms denote themselves as special in syntax and orthography likewise.

Duden , the comprehensive German dictionary, contains about Helvetisms. Learning one of the other national languages at school is compulsory for all Swiss pupils, so many Swiss are supposed to be at least bilingual , especially those belonging to linguistic minority groups.

Swiss residents are universally required to buy health insurance from private insurance companies, which in turn are required to accept every applicant.

While the cost of the system is among the highest, it compares well with other European countries in terms of health outcomes; patients have been reported as being, in general, highly satisfied with it.

It is estimated that one out of six persons in Switzerland suffers from mental illness. Between two thirds and three quarters of the population live in urban areas.

Since urban development has claimed as much of the Swiss landscape as it did during the previous 2, years. This urban sprawl does not only affect the plateau but also the Jura and the Alpine foothills [] and there are growing concerns about land use.

Switzerland has a dense network of towns, where large, medium and small towns are complementary. These churches, and in some cantons also the Old Catholic Church and Jewish congregations, are financed by official taxation of adherents.

As of the census other Christian minority communities included Neo- Pietism 0. Non-Christian religions are Hinduism 0. The country was historically about evenly balanced between Catholic and Protestant, with a complex patchwork of majorities over most of the country.

Switzerland played an exceptional role during the Reformation as it became home to many reformers. Geneva converted to Protestantism in , just before John Calvin arrived there.

In , he founded the Republic of Geneva on his own ideals. Zürich became another stronghold around the same time, with Huldrych Zwingli and Heinrich Bullinger taking the lead there.

Anabaptists Felix Manz and Conrad Grebel also operated there. Gallen Joachim Vadian. One canton, Appenzell, was officially divided into Catholic and Protestant sections in The Swiss Constitution of , under the recent impression of the clashes of Catholic vs.

Protestant cantons that culminated in the Sonderbundskrieg , consciously defines a consociational state , allowing the peaceful co-existence of Catholics and Protestants.

A initiative calling for the complete separation of church and state was rejected by Three of Europe's major languages are official in Switzerland.

Swiss culture is characterised by diversity, which is reflected in a wide range of traditional customs. Switzerland is home to many notable contributors to literature, art, architecture, music and sciences.

In addition the country attracted a number of creative persons during time of unrest or war in Europe. Alpine symbolism has played an essential role in shaping the history of the country and the Swiss national identity.

Other areas throughout the year have a recreational culture that caters to tourism such as sight-seeing, yet the quieter seasons are spring and autumn when there are fewer visitors.

A traditional farmer and herder culture also predominates in many areas and small farms are omnipresent outside the towns. Folk art is kept alive in organisations all over the country.

In Switzerland it is mostly expressed in music, dance, poetry, wood carving and embroidery. The alphorn , a trumpet-like musical instrument made of wood, has become alongside yodeling and the accordion an epitome of traditional Swiss music.

As the Confederation, from its foundation in , was almost exclusively composed of German-speaking regions, the earliest forms of literature are in German.

In the 18th century, French became the fashionable language in Bern and elsewhere, while the influence of the French-speaking allies and subject lands was more marked than before.

Probably the most famous Swiss literary creation, Heidi , the story of an orphan girl who lives with her grandfather in the Alps, is one of the most popular children's books ever and has come to be a symbol of Switzerland.

Her creator, Johanna Spyri — , wrote a number of other books on similar themes. The freedom of the press and the right to free expression is guaranteed in the federal constitution of Switzerland.

The SNA supplies almost all Swiss media and a couple dozen foreign media services with its news. Switzerland has historically boasted the greatest number of newspaper titles published in proportion to its population and size.

The cultural diversity accounts for a variety of newspapers. The government exerts greater control over broadcast media than print media, especially due to finance and licensing.

Radio content is produced in six central and four regional studios while the television programmes are produced in Geneva , Zürich , Basel , and Lugano.

An extensive cable network also allows most Swiss to access the programmes from neighbouring countries. Skiing , snowboarding and mountaineering are among the most popular sports in Switzerland, the nature of the country being particularly suited for such activities.

Moritz The latter town hosted the second Winter Olympic Games in and the fifth edition in Among the most successful skiers and world champions are Pirmin Zurbriggen and Didier Cuche.

The most prominently watched sports in Switzerland are football , ice hockey , Alpine skiing , " Schwingen ", and tennis. Many other headquarters of international sports federations are located in Switzerland.

The Swiss Super League is the nation's professional football club league. Many Swiss also follow ice hockey and support one of the 12 teams of the National League , which is the most attended league in Europe.

The numerous lakes make Switzerland an attractive place for sailing. The largest, Lake Geneva , is the home of the sailing team Alinghi which was the first European team to win the America's Cup in and which successfully defended the title in Motorsport racecourses and events were banned in Switzerland following the Le Mans disaster with exception to events such as Hillclimbing.

In June the Swiss National Council , one house of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland , voted to overturn the ban, however the other house, the Swiss Council of States rejected the change and the ban remains in place.

Traditional sports include Swiss wrestling or " Schwingen ". It is an old tradition from the rural central cantons and considered the national sport by some.

Hornussen is another indigenous Swiss sport, which is like a cross between baseball and golf. Practised only among the alpine population since prehistoric times , it is recorded to have taken place in Basel in the 13th century.

It is also central to the Unspunnenfest , first held in , with its symbol the The cuisine of Switzerland is multifaceted. While some dishes such as fondue , raclette or rösti are omnipresent through the country, each region developed its own gastronomy according to the differences of climate and languages.

The number of fine-dining establishments is high, particularly in western Switzerland. Chocolate has been made in Switzerland since the 18th century but it gained its reputation at the end of the 19th century with the invention of modern techniques such as conching and tempering which enabled its production on a high quality level.

Also a breakthrough was the invention of solid milk chocolate in by Daniel Peter. The Swiss are the world's largest consumers of chocolate.

Due to the popularisation of processed foods at the end of the 19th century, Swiss health food pioneer Maximilian Bircher-Benner created the first nutrition-based therapy in form of the well-known rolled oats cereal dish, called Birchermüesli.

The most popular alcoholic drink in Switzerland is wine. Switzerland is notable for the variety of grapes grown because of the large variations in terroirs , with their specific mixes of soil, air, altitude and light.

Swiss wine is produced mainly in Valais , Vaud Lavaux , Geneva and Ticino , with a small majority of white wines. Vineyards have been cultivated in Switzerland since the Roman era, even though certain traces can be found of a more ancient origin.

The most widespread varieties are the Chasselas called Fendant in Valais and Pinot noir. The Merlot is the main variety produced in Ticino.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Federal republic in Central Europe. This article is about the sovereign state.

For other uses, see Switzerland disambiguation and Swiss Confederation disambiguation. Coat of arms. Main article: Name of Switzerland. Main article: History of Switzerland.

Main articles: Early history of Switzerland and Switzerland in the Roman era. Main article: Old Swiss Confederacy.

Main articles: Restoration and Regeneration Switzerland and Switzerland as a federal state. Main article: Geography of Switzerland. Contrasted landscapes between the regions of the Matterhorn and Lake Lucerne.

Main article: Politics of Switzerland. Main article: Voting in Switzerland. Main article: Cantons of Switzerland. Main article: Foreign relations of Switzerland.

Main article: Economy of Switzerland. Main articles: Education in Switzerland and Science and technology in Switzerland.

Main article: Switzerland—European Union relations. Main articles: Demographics of Switzerland and Swiss people.

Further information: List of Swiss people. Main article: Languages of Switzerland. German French Italian 8. Romansh 0.

Main articles: Health in Switzerland and Healthcare in Switzerland. Main article: Towns of Switzerland. Main article: Religion in Switzerland.

Main article: Culture of Switzerland. See also: Music of Switzerland , Swiss folklore , and Alpine culture. Main article: Literature of Switzerland.

Main article: Media of Switzerland. Main article: Sport in Switzerland. Main article: Swiss cuisine. See also: Culinary Heritage of Switzerland.

Switzerland portal Europe portal. Swiss law does not designate a capital as such, but the federal parliament and government are located in Bern, while the federal courts are located in other cities.

The date of the Federal Charter of was selected in for the official celebration of the "Confederacy's th anniversary". A resolution of the Tagsatzung of 14 September specified that the powers of the institutions provided for by the Federal Treaty would expire at the time of the constitution of the Federal Council , which took place on 16 November Schwyz is also the standard German and international name of one of the Swiss cantons.

Berne: Department Communication, University of Berne. Retrieved 30 May French Politics. Insight Turkey.

Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 20 September Switzerland's population PDF official report. Swiss Statistics. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 7 December International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 20 October United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Princeton University Press.

Swiss Constitutional Law. Kluwer Law International. Adrian Vatter Studienkurs Politikwissenschaft in German. Comparative Studies in Society and History.

Tages-Anzeiger in German. Zürich, Switzerland. Archived from the original on 15 December Retrieved 14 December Credit Suisse. Archived from the original PDF on 23 October Retrieved 17 June The country data comes from Table 3.

The region data comes from the end of that table on page Digital Journal. Archived from the original on 12 January The Guardian.

London, UK. Zürich, CH: Mercer Consulting. Retrieved 23 February Geneva, Switzerland: WEF. London: MacFarland and Co.

Retrieved 30 March Smithsonian Magazine. All That's Interesting. Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 22 June It should be noticed that in valle di Lei Italy got in exchange a territory of the same area.

Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 22 October Archived 1 December at the Wayback Machine stonebooks.

Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 5 May Bartoszewski; S. Friedländer; H. James; H. Junz; G. Kreis; S. Milton; J. Picard; J. Tanner; D.

Thürer; J. Voyame Zürich: Pendo Verlag GmbH. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 6 March International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War.

Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 25 September The Telegraph. Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 12 October Map of Switzerland with route planner.

Cartography by TomTom, swisstopo, osm. Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 27 March Swiss Federal Statistical Office.

Archived from the original on 21 September Archived from the original on 13 October Archived from the original on 29 June Archived from the original on 23 February Archived from the original on 15 November Archived from the original on 29 January Global Footprint Network.

Retrieved 17 October Berne, Switzerland: The Federal Council. Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 24 June Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 13 December Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 9 December Berne, Switzerland: ch.

Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 4 December Retrieved 4 December Le Temps.

SWI swissinfo. Archived from the original PDF on 19 February Retrieved 2 March Bergier Commission, May Retrieved on 5 July Retrieved 28 August Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 15 January Neue Zürcher Zeitung.

Associated Press. The Local. Retrieved 20 August November Archived 30 November at the Wayback Machine admin. Dezember Stand am 1.

Januar : Art. Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 6 December Berne, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Chancellery.

Archived from the original on 10 October The rest follow other religions, or they have no religion. Switzerland is famous for its chocolate , cheese , banking system, watches and mountains.

In , people from Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden wanted to be free. They signed a contract to work together called the Eternal Alliance. Together, they could be free from the people of Habsburg , who were very strong.

The people of the Eternal Alliance won all the battles. People from other areas signed the contract and joined the Eternal Alliance.

More and more people worked together to be free. In , other countries from Europe made an agreement that Switzerland was free. The name of this agreement was the Peace of Westphalia.

More areas came to be part of Switzerland. Switzerland was important to the slave trade that forced black Africans to be sold as slaves. Swiss companies made indiennes , which are a kind of cloth.

These cloths were sent to Africa and exchanged for captured slaves. Some Swiss also joined French companies already making indiennes or owned plantations with slaves in French colonies.

In , France invaded Switzerland. The ruler of France was Napoleon. He changed many laws. In Switzerland again became independent from France.

Other countries agreed at the Congress of Vienna that Switzerland was free and neutral. The constitution of Switzerland that was made after a short civil war in was replaced in Since , Switzerland is part of the United Nations.

It did not join the United Nations for 57 years because of its neutrality. Switzerland is a republic. Switzerland does not have the same kind of president as the United States or France.

Seven people called ministers do the job of president. Every year one of these people is made president. The president is not more important than the other six people.

At present 3 of the 7 people are women. There are two parts of parliament in Switzerland. The Council of States and the National Council. Only both together can make laws.

There are 46 people in the Council of States. Every full canton of Switzerland can send 2 people. There are people in the National Council.

The biggest canton sends most people to the National Council. The smallest 6 cantons can only send one person to the National Council.

The people of Switzerland can collect signatures if they do not like a new law or a law change.

This is called a referendum. If enough people sign a referendum, the people vote. The people can also collect signatures to change the constitution.

This is called an initiative. The constitution is the basic law of a country. In Switzerland and the European Union made a contract.

This contract makes trade even easier. They recently made two other contracts. The banks of Switzerland and the insurance companies in Switzerland together produce eleven per cent of the gross domestic product.

Tourism is important in Switzerland. There are many places for tourists. Davos , St. Moritz , Pontresina and Flims are in Switzerland.

These towns are important both in winter for skiing and in summer. Tourists also like the cities of Lucerne , Geneva , and Zürich. In the pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland directly and indirectly employed about , people.

They both have invented many life saving drugs because of well developed research and development facilities. The literature of Switzerland is divided according to the language used.

Most Swiss literature was written in German from until French became popular in Bern and elsewhere in the 18th century and many words also in the German speaking parts of Switzerland come from the French and are not known to Germans.

Italian language and Romansch-Latin literature are less common in Switzerland. Heidi , a book for children by Johanna Spyri , is the most famous book of Switzerland.

Skiing , snowboarding and mountaineering are among the most popular sports in Switzerland. Because of the large mountain range the nature of the country is well suited for such activities.

Moritz Moritz hosted the second Winter Olympic Games in and in Among the most successful skiers and world champions are Pirmin Zurbriggen and Didier Cuche.

Many Swiss are fans of football. The national team or ' Nati ' is widely supported. Switzerland was the joint host, with Austria , of the Euro tournament.

Many Swiss also follow ice hockey.

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Giving credit to those who favoured the power of the cantons the Sonderbund Kantone , the national assembly was divided between an upper house the Council of States , two representatives per canton and a lower house the National Council , with representatives elected from across the country.

Referendums were made mandatory for any amendment of this constitution. A system of single weights and measures was introduced and in the Swiss franc became the Swiss single currency.

Article 11 of the constitution forbade sending troops to serve abroad, with the exception of serving the Holy See , though the Swiss were still obliged to serve Francis II of the Two Sicilies with Swiss Guards present at the Siege of Gaeta in , marking the end of foreign service.

An important clause of the constitution was that it could be re-written completely if this was deemed necessary, thus enabling it to evolve as a whole rather than being modified one amendment at a time.

This need soon proved itself when the rise in population and the Industrial Revolution that followed led to calls to modify the constitution accordingly.

An early draft was rejected by the population in but modifications led to its acceptance in It also established federal responsibility for defence, trade, and legal matters.

In , the constitution was revised with unusually strong elements of direct democracy , which remain unique even today.

Switzerland was not invaded during either of the world wars. In , Switzerland joined the League of Nations , which was based in Geneva , on condition that it was exempt from any military requirements.

The Swiss military strategy was changed from one of static defence at the borders to protect the economic heartland, to one of organised long-term attrition and withdrawal to strong, well-stockpiled positions high in the Alps known as the Reduit.

Switzerland was an important base for espionage by both sides in the conflict and often mediated communications between the Axis and Allied powers.

Switzerland's trade was blockaded by both the Allies and by the Axis. Economic cooperation and extension of credit to the Third Reich varied according to the perceived likelihood of invasion and the availability of other trading partners.

Concessions reached a peak after a crucial rail link through Vichy France was severed in , leaving Switzerland together with Liechtenstein entirely isolated from the wider world by Axis controlled territory.

Over the course of the war, Switzerland interned over , refugees [49] and the International Red Cross , based in Geneva, played an important part during the conflict.

Strict immigration and asylum policies as well as the financial relationships with Nazi Germany raised controversy, but not until the end of the 20th century.

During the war, the Swiss Air Force engaged aircraft of both sides, shooting down 11 intruding Luftwaffe planes in May and June , then forcing down other intruders after a change of policy following threats from Germany.

Over Allied bombers and their crews were interned during the war. Between and , Switzerland was bombed by the Allies causing fatalities and property damage.

Allied forces explained the bombings, which violated the 96th Article of War , resulted from navigation errors, equipment failure, weather conditions, and errors made by bomber pilots.

The Swiss expressed fear and concern that the bombings were intended to put pressure on Switzerland to end economic cooperation and neutrality with Nazi Germany.

Government paid 62,, Switzerland's attitude towards refugees was complicated and controversial; over the course of the war it admitted as many as , refugees [49] while refusing tens of thousands more, [52] including Jews who were severely persecuted by the Nazis.

After the war, the Swiss government exported credits through the charitable fund known as the Schweizerspende and also donated to the Marshall Plan to help Europe's recovery, efforts that ultimately benefited the Swiss economy.

During the Cold War , Swiss authorities considered the construction of a Swiss nuclear bomb. In , the Paul Scherrer Institute was founded in his name to explore the therapeutic uses of neutron scattering technologies.

Financial problems with the defence budget and ethical considerations prevented the substantial funds from being allocated, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of was seen as a valid alternative.

All remaining plans for building nuclear weapons were dropped by Switzerland was the last Western republic to grant women the right to vote.

Some Swiss cantons approved this in , while at the federal level it was achieved in [42] [56] and, after resistance, in the last canton Appenzell Innerrhoden one of only two remaining Landsgemeinde , along with Glarus in After obtaining suffrage at the federal level, women quickly rose in political significance, with the first woman on the seven member Federal Council executive being Elisabeth Kopp , who served from to , [42] and the first female president being Ruth Dreifuss in Switzerland joined the Council of Europe in On 18 April the Swiss population and the cantons voted in favour of a completely revised federal constitution.

In Switzerland became a full member of the United Nations, leaving the Vatican City as the last widely recognised state without full UN membership.

An application for membership in the European Union was sent in May , but not advanced since the EEA was rejected in December [42] when Switzerland was the only country to launch a referendum on the EEA.

There have since been several referendums on the EU issue; due to opposition from the citizens, the membership application has been withdrawn.

Nonetheless, Swiss law is gradually being adjusted to conform with that of the EU, and the government has signed a number of bilateral agreements with the European Union.

Switzerland, together with Liechtenstein, has been completely surrounded by the EU since Austria's entry in It contains three basic topographical areas: the Swiss Alps to the south, the Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau, and the Jura mountains on the west.

The majority of the Swiss population live in the Swiss Plateau. The largest lake is Lake Geneva, in western Switzerland shared with France.

Lake Constance is the second largest Swiss lake and, like the Lake Geneva, an intermediate step by the Rhine at the border to Austria and Germany.

Both are located within the Pennine Alps in the canton of Valais , on the border with Italy. In the southeast the long Engadin Valley, encompassing the St.

It has greater open and hilly landscapes, partly forested, partly open pastures, usually with grazing herds, or vegetables and fruit fields, but it is still hilly.

There are large lakes found here and the biggest Swiss cities are in this area of the country. The Swiss climate is generally temperate , but can vary greatly between the localities, [64] from glacial conditions on the mountaintops to the often pleasant near Mediterranean climate at Switzerland's southern tip.

There are some valley areas in the southern part of Switzerland where some cold-hardy palm trees are found. Summers tend to be warm and humid at times with periodic rainfall so they are ideal for pastures and grazing.

The less humid winters in the mountains may see long intervals of stable conditions for weeks, while the lower lands tend to suffer from inversion , during these periods, thus seeing no sun for weeks.

A weather phenomenon known as the föhn with an identical effect to the chinook wind can occur at all times of the year and is characterised by an unexpectedly warm wind, bringing air of very low relative humidity to the north of the Alps during rainfall periods on the southern face of the Alps.

This works both ways across the alps but is more efficient if blowing from the south due to the steeper step for oncoming wind from the south. Valleys running south to north trigger the best effect.

The driest conditions persist in all inner alpine valleys that receive less rain because arriving clouds lose a lot of their content while crossing the mountains before reaching these areas.

Large alpine areas such as Graubünden remain drier than pre-alpine areas and as in the main valley of the Valais wine grapes are grown there.

The wettest conditions persist in the high Alps and in the Ticino canton which has much sun yet heavy bursts of rain from time to time.

Autumn is the driest season, winter receives less precipitation than summer, yet the weather patterns in Switzerland are not in a stable climate system and can be variable from year to year with no strict and predictable periods.

Switzerland's ecosystems can be particularly fragile, because the many delicate valleys separated by high mountains often form unique ecologies.

The mountainous regions themselves are also vulnerable, with a rich range of plants not found at other altitudes, and experience some pressure from visitors and grazing.

The climatic, geological and topographical conditions of the alpine region make for a very fragile ecosystem that is particularly sensitive to climate change.

However, access to biocapacity in Switzerland is far lower than world average. In , Switzerland had 1. In contrast, in , they used 4.

This means they used about 4. The remainder comes from imports and overusing the global commons such as the atmosphere through greenhouse gas emissions.

As a result, Switzerland is running a biocapacity deficit. The Federal Constitution adopted in is the legal foundation of the modern federal state.

It outlines basic and political rights of individuals and citizen participation in public affairs, divides the powers between the Confederation and the cantons and defines federal jurisdiction and authority.

There are three main governing bodies on the federal level: [70] the bicameral parliament legislative , the Federal Council executive and the Federal Court judicial.

The Swiss Parliament consists of two houses: the Council of States which has 46 representatives two from each canton and one from each half-canton who are elected under a system determined by each canton, and the National Council , which consists of members who are elected under a system of proportional representation , depending on the population of each canton.

Members of both houses serve for 4 years and only serve as members of parliament part-time so-called Milizsystem or citizen legislature.

Through referendums , citizens may challenge any law passed by parliament and through initiatives , introduce amendments to the federal constitution, thus making Switzerland a direct democracy.

The Federal Council constitutes the federal government, directs the federal administration and serves as collective Head of State.

It is a collegial body of seven members, elected for a four-year mandate by the Federal Assembly which also exercises oversight over the Council.

The President of the Confederation is elected by the Assembly from among the seven members, traditionally in rotation and for a one-year term; the President chairs the government and assumes representative functions.

However, the president is a primus inter pares with no additional powers, and remains the head of a department within the administration.

The Swiss government has been a coalition of the four major political parties since , each party having a number of seats that roughly reflects its share of electorate and representation in the federal parliament.

Following the Federal Council elections , the seven seats in the Federal Council were distributed as follows:. The function of the Federal Supreme Court is to hear appeals against rulings of cantonal or federal courts.

The judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for six-year terms. Direct democracy and federalism are hallmarks of the Swiss political system.

The and Swiss Constitutions define a system of direct democracy sometimes called half-direct or representative direct democracy because it is aided by the more commonplace institutions of a representative democracy.

The instruments of this system at the federal level, known as popular rights German : Volksrechte , French : droits populaires , Italian : diritti popolari , [74] include the right to submit a federal initiative and a referendum, both of which may overturn parliamentary decisions.

By calling a federal referendum, a group of citizens may challenge a law passed by parliament, if they gather 50, signatures against the law within days.

If so, a national vote is scheduled where voters decide by a simple majority whether to accept or reject the law. Any 8 cantons together can also call a constitutional referendum on a federal law.

Similarly, the federal constitutional initiative allows citizens to put a constitutional amendment to a national vote, if , voters sign the proposed amendment within 18 months.

Constitutional amendments, whether introduced by initiative or in parliament, must be accepted by a double majority of the national popular vote and the cantonal popular votes.

The Swiss Confederation consists of 26 cantons: [69] [76]. The cantons are federated states , have a permanent constitutional status and, in comparison with the situation in other countries, a high degree of independence.

Under the Federal Constitution, all 26 cantons are equal in status, except that 6 referred to often as the half-cantons are represented by only one councillor instead of two in the Council of States and have only half a cantonal vote with respect to the required cantonal majority in referendums on constitutional amendments.

Each canton has its own constitution, and its own parliament, government, police and courts. The cantons comprise a total of 2, municipalities as of Traditionally, Switzerland avoids alliances that might entail military, political, or direct economic action and has been neutral since the end of its expansion in Its policy of neutrality was internationally recognised at the Congress of Vienna in Switzerland maintains diplomatic relations with almost all countries and historically has served as an intermediary between other states.

Many international institutions have their seats in Switzerland, in part because of its policy of neutrality. Even though Switzerland is one of the most recent countries to have joined the United Nations, the Palace of Nations in Geneva is the second biggest centre for the United Nations after New York, and Switzerland was a founding member and home to the League of Nations.

The Swiss Armed Forces , including the Land Forces and the Air Force , are composed mostly of conscripts, male citizens aged from 20 to 34 in special cases up to 50 years.

Being a landlocked country, Switzerland has no navy; however, on lakes bordering neighbouring countries, armed military patrol boats are used.

Swiss citizens are prohibited from serving in foreign armies, except for the Swiss Guards of the Vatican , or if they are dual citizens of a foreign country and reside there.

The structure of the Swiss militia system stipulates that the soldiers keep their Army issued equipment, including all personal weapons, at home.

Some organisations and political parties find this practice controversial. Men usually receive military conscription orders for training at the age of The reform "Army XXI" was adopted by popular vote in , it replaced the previous model "Army 95", reducing the effectives from , to about , Of those, , are active in periodic Army training and 80, are non-training reserves.

Overall, three general mobilisations have been declared to ensure the integrity and neutrality of Switzerland.

The first one was held on the occasion of the Franco-Prussian War of — The second was in response to the outbreak of the First World War in August The third mobilisation of the army took place in September in response to the German attack on Poland ; Henri Guisan was elected as the General-in-Chief.

Because of its neutrality policy, the Swiss army does not currently take part in armed conflicts in other countries, but is part of some peacekeeping missions around the world.

Since the armed force department has also maintained the Onyx intelligence gathering system to monitor satellite communications.

Following the end of the Cold War there have been a number of attempts to curb military activity or even abolish the armed forces altogether.

A notable referendum on the subject, launched by an anti-militarist group , was held on 26 November It was defeated with about two thirds of the voters against the proposal.

The large majority of firearms kept at home are issued by the Swiss army , but ammunition is no longer issued.

Until the rather loosely coupled Confederation did not know a central political organisation, but representatives, mayors, and Landammänner met several times a year at the capital of the Lieu presiding the Confederal Diet for one year.

Until the legates met most of the time in Lucerne , but also in Zürich, Baden , Bern, Schwyz etc. From the Swabian War in onwards until Reformation, most conferences met in Zurich.

Afterwards the town hall at Baden, where the annual accounts of the common people had been held regularly since , became the most frequent, but not the sole place of assembly.

After Frauenfeld gradually dissolved Baden. From , the Catholic conferences were held mostly in Lucerne, the Protestant conferences from mostly in Aarau , the one for the legitimation of the French Ambassador in Solothurn.

At the same time the syndicate for the Ennetbirgischen Vogteien located in the present Ticino met from in Lugano and Locarno. In , the federal constitution provided that details concerning the federal institutions, such as their locations, should be taken care of by the Federal Assembly BV Art.

Thus on 28 November , the Federal Assembly voted in majority to locate the seat of government in Berne. In , a law RS fixed the compensations owed by the city of Bern for the federal seat.

The new constitution, however, does not contain anything concerning any Federal City. In a tripartite committee has been asked by the Swiss Federal Council to prepare the "creation of a federal law on the status of Bern as a Federal City", and to evaluate the positive and negative aspects for the city and the canton of Bern if this status were awarded.

After a first report the work of this committee was suspended in by the Swiss Federal Council, and work on this subject has not resumed since.

Origin of the capital at the 30 biggest Swiss corporations, []. Switzerland has a stable, prosperous and high-tech economy and enjoys great wealth, being ranked as the wealthiest country in the world per capita in multiple rankings, while at the same time being one the least corrupt countries in the world.

It is the seventeenth largest exporter. Zürich and Geneva are regarded as global cities , ranked as Alpha and Beta respectively.

Basel is the capital of the pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland. With its world-class companies, Novartis and Roche, and many other players, it is also one of the world's most important centres for the life sciences industry.

Switzerland has the highest European rating in the Index of Economic Freedom , while also providing large coverage through public services.

The World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report currently ranks Switzerland's economy as the most competitive in the world, [] while ranked by the European Union as Europe's most innovative country.

The slow growth Switzerland experienced in the s and the early s has brought greater support for economic reforms and harmonisation with the European Union.

For much of the 20th century, Switzerland was the wealthiest country in Europe by a considerable margin by GDP — per capita.

Switzerland is home to several large multinational corporations. Switzerland is ranked as having one of the most powerful economies in the world.

Switzerland's most important economic sector is manufacturing. Manufacturing consists largely of the production of specialist chemicals , health and pharmaceutical goods, scientific and precision measuring instruments and musical instruments.

Agricultural protectionism—a rare exception to Switzerland's free trade policies—has contributed to high food prices. Switzerland has an overwhelmingly private sector economy and low tax rates by Western World standards; overall taxation is one of the smallest of developed countries.

The Swiss Federal budget had a size of The unemployment rate increased from a low of 1. GDP per hour worked is the world's 16th highest, at About 8.

Single-parent families, those with no post-compulsory education and those who are out of work are among the most likely to be living below the poverty line.

Although getting a job is considered a way out of poverty, among the gainfully employed, some 4. Education in Switzerland is very diverse because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system to the cantons.

The minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons, but most cantons provide a free "children's school" starting at four or five years old.

Traditionally, the first foreign language in school was always one of the other national languages, although in English was introduced first in a few cantons.

At the end of primary school or at the beginning of secondary school , pupils are separated according to their capacities in several often three sections.

The fastest learners are taught advanced classes to be prepared for further studies and the matura , [] while students who assimilate a little more slowly receive an education more adapted to their needs.

There are 12 universities in Switzerland , ten of which are maintained at cantonal level and usually offer a range of non-technical subjects. The first university in Switzerland was founded in in Basel with a faculty of medicine and has a tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland.

It is listed 87th on the Academic Ranking of World Universities. In addition, there are various Universities of Applied Sciences. In business and management studies, the University of St.

As might befit a country that plays home to innumerable international organisations, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies , located in Geneva , is not only continental Europe's oldest graduate school of international and development studies, but also widely believed to be one of its most prestigious.

Many Nobel Prize laureates have been Swiss scientists. They include the world-famous physicist Albert Einstein [] in the field of physics, who developed his special relativity while working in Bern.

In total, Nobel Prize winners in all fields stand in relation to Switzerland [] [note 11] and the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded nine times to organisations residing in Switzerland.

Geneva and the nearby French department of Ain co-host the world's largest laboratory , CERN , [] dedicated to particle physics research.

Another important research centre is the Paul Scherrer Institute. Notable inventions include lysergic acid diethylamide LSD , diazepam Valium , the scanning tunnelling microscope Nobel prize and Velcro.

Some technologies enabled the exploration of new worlds such as the pressurised balloon of Auguste Piccard and the Bathyscaphe which permitted Jacques Piccard to reach the deepest point of the world's oceans.

Switzerland Space Agency, the Swiss Space Office , has been involved in various space technologies and programmes. In addition it was one of the 10 founders of the European Space Agency in and is the seventh largest contributor to the ESA budget.

In the private sector, several companies are implicated in the space industry such as Oerlikon Space [] or Maxon Motors [] who provide spacecraft structures.

Switzerland voted against membership in the European Economic Area in a referendum in December and has since maintained and developed its relationships with the European Union EU and European countries through bilateral agreements.

In March , the Swiss people refused in a popular vote to start accession negotiations with the EU.

The application for membership of the EU was formally withdrawn in , having long been frozen. The western French-speaking areas and the urban regions of the rest of the country tend to be more pro-EU, nonetheless with far from a significant share of the population.

To minimise the negative consequences of Switzerland's isolation from the rest of Europe, Bern and Brussels signed seven bilateral agreements to further liberalise trade ties.

These agreements were signed in and took effect in This first series of bilateral agreements included the free movement of persons.

A second series covering nine areas was signed in and has since been ratified, which includes the Schengen Treaty and the Dublin Convention besides others.

In , Switzerland approved 1 billion francs of supportive investment in the poorer Southern and Central European countries in support of cooperation and positive ties to the EU as a whole.

A further referendum will be needed to approve million francs to support Romania and Bulgaria and their recent admission. The Swiss have also been under EU and sometimes international pressure to reduce banking secrecy and to raise tax rates to parity with the EU.

Preparatory discussions are being opened in four new areas: opening up the electricity market, participation in the European GNSS project Galileo , cooperating with the European centre for disease prevention and recognising certificates of origin for food products.

On 27 November , the interior and justice ministers of European Union in Brussels announced Switzerland's accession to the Schengen passport-free zone from 12 December The land border checkpoints will remain in place only for goods movements, but should not run controls on people, though people entering the country had their passports checked until 29 March if they originated from a Schengen nation.

On 9 February , Swiss voters narrowly approved by This initiative was mostly backed by rural In December , a political compromise with the European Union was attained effectively canceling quotas on EU citizens but still allowing for favourable treatment of Swiss-based job applicants.

On 18 May , two anti-nuclear initiatives were turned down: Moratorium Plus , aimed at forbidding the building of new nuclear power plants The agency is supporting the watt society initiative to cut the nation's energy use by more than half by the year On 31 May the world's longest and deepest railway tunnel and the first flat, low-level route through the Alps, the It started its daily business for passenger transport on 11 December replacing the old, mountainous, scenic route over and through the St Gotthard Massif.

Switzerland has a publicly managed road network without road tolls that is financed by highway permits as well as vehicle and gasoline taxes.

Gallen-Altenrhein Airport and Sion Airport. Swiss International Air Lines is the flag carrier of Switzerland. Its main hub is Zürich, but it is legally domiciled in Basel.

Switzerland has one of the best environmental records among nations in the developed world; [] it was one of the countries to sign the Kyoto Protocol in and ratified it in Switzerland developed an efficient system to recycle most recyclable materials.

Switzerland also has an economic system for garbage disposal, which is based mostly on recycling and energy-producing incinerators due to a strong political will to protect the environment.

In almost all Swiss municipalities, stickers or dedicated garbage bags need to be purchased that allow for identification of disposable garbage.

In , Switzerland's population slightly exceeded 8. In common with other developed countries, the Swiss population increased rapidly during the industrial era, quadrupling between and and has continued to grow.

Like most of Europe, Switzerland faces an ageing population , albeit with consistent annual growth projected into , due mostly to immigration and a fertility rate close to replacement level.

As of [update] , resident foreigners make up Immigrants from Sri Lanka , most of them former Tamil refugees, were the largest group among people of Asian origin 6.

Additionally, the figures from show that A third of this population , held Swiss citizenship. Four fifths of persons with an immigration background were themselves immigrants first generation foreigners and native-born and naturalised Swiss citizens , whereas one fifth were born in Switzerland second generation foreigners and native-born and naturalised Swiss citizens.

In the s, domestic and international institutions expressed concern about what was perceived as an increase in xenophobia , particularly in some political campaigns.

In reply to one critical report, the Federal Council noted that "racism unfortunately is present in Switzerland", but stated that the high proportion of foreign citizens in the country, as well as the generally unproblematic integration of foreigners, underlined Switzerland's openness.

Switzerland has four national languages : mainly German spoken by However, federal laws and other official acts do not need to be decreed in Romansh.

In , the languages most spoken at home among permanent residents aged 15 and older were Swiss German Other languages spoken at home included English 5.

The federal government is obliged to communicate in the official languages, and in the federal parliament simultaneous translation is provided from and into German, French and Italian.

Aside from the official forms of their respective languages, the four linguistic regions of Switzerland also have their local dialectal forms.

The role played by dialects in each linguistic region varies dramatically: in the German-speaking regions, Swiss German dialects have become ever more prevalent since the second half of the 20th century, especially in the media, such as radio and television, and are used as an everyday language for many, while the Swiss variety of Standard German is almost always used instead of dialect for written communication c.

The principal official languages German, French, and Italian have terms, not used outside of Switzerland, known as Helvetisms. German Helvetisms are, roughly speaking, a large group of words typical of Swiss Standard German , which do not appear either in Standard German , nor in other German dialects.

These include terms from Switzerland's surrounding language cultures German Billett [] from French , from similar terms in another language Italian azione used not only as act but also as discount from German Aktion.

The most frequent characteristics of Helvetisms are in vocabulary, phrases, and pronunciation, but certain Helvetisms denote themselves as special in syntax and orthography likewise.

Duden , the comprehensive German dictionary, contains about Helvetisms. Learning one of the other national languages at school is compulsory for all Swiss pupils, so many Swiss are supposed to be at least bilingual , especially those belonging to linguistic minority groups.

Swiss residents are universally required to buy health insurance from private insurance companies, which in turn are required to accept every applicant.

While the cost of the system is among the highest, it compares well with other European countries in terms of health outcomes; patients have been reported as being, in general, highly satisfied with it.

East of Switzerland are Austria and Liechtenstein. To the south of Switzerland is Italy. To the west of Switzerland is France. The confederation is divided into 23 full states called cantons.

The mountains are very tall in the center and south of Switzerland. Only few people live here. The highest mountain is the Dufour Peak at 4, m.

Many of the mountains have ice all year. This ice is called glaciers. There are many lakes in Switzerland. Mountains in the north of Switzerland are fewer and smaller.

That is why most Swiss people live in cities and towns in the north. The Jura mountains are in the northwest of Switzerland. There are about 8. The German-speaking people of Switzerland do not actually speak "German" as their native language.

Swiss people speak something called Alemannic which has its own writing language and grammar but still is normally considered a German dialect.

Alemannic may be difficult for Germans to understand. Swiss people do write like the people from Germany and also speak standard German very well, especially in the larger cities.

The religion of most people in Switzerland is Christianity. The rest follow other religions, or they have no religion.

Switzerland is famous for its chocolate , cheese , banking system, watches and mountains. In , people from Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden wanted to be free.

They signed a contract to work together called the Eternal Alliance. Together, they could be free from the people of Habsburg , who were very strong.

The people of the Eternal Alliance won all the battles. People from other areas signed the contract and joined the Eternal Alliance.

More and more people worked together to be free. In , other countries from Europe made an agreement that Switzerland was free.

The name of this agreement was the Peace of Westphalia. More areas came to be part of Switzerland. Switzerland was important to the slave trade that forced black Africans to be sold as slaves.

Swiss companies made indiennes , which are a kind of cloth. These cloths were sent to Africa and exchanged for captured slaves. Some Swiss also joined French companies already making indiennes or owned plantations with slaves in French colonies.

In , France invaded Switzerland. The ruler of France was Napoleon. He changed many laws. In Switzerland again became independent from France.

Other countries agreed at the Congress of Vienna that Switzerland was free and neutral. The constitution of Switzerland that was made after a short civil war in was replaced in Since , Switzerland is part of the United Nations.

It did not join the United Nations for 57 years because of its neutrality. Switzerland is a republic.

Switzerland does not have the same kind of president as the United States or France. Seven people called ministers do the job of president.

Every year one of these people is made president. Die innovativen Produkte und Tauschrhythmen haben mir die Möglichkeit gegeben, meinen Kunden auch in Zeiten von Kontaktlinsen-Onlinehandel ein unvergleichliches Preis-Leistung-Verhältnis zu bieten.

Und das sogar Swiss-Made. Ich freue mich auf weitere viele Jahre der Zusammenarbeit. SwissLens … für unsere individuellen Kunden, die individuelle und unkomplizierte Kontaktlinse mit super Beratung und Anpassunterstützung durch ein tolles Team….

Eine gute Qualität, eine ständige Fortentwicklung der Produkte. Individuelle Tauschrythmen einzelner Systeme können wir perfekt an unsere Abo-Systeme anpassen.

Weiter so….!!! Lösungen werden stets unbürokratisch und schnell zu unserer vollsten Zufriedenheit abgewickelt.

Geht nicht gibt's nicht ist ein Markenzeichen der Firma SwissLens.

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3 comments

es ist genau

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